Lentivirus - Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Infectious Agent: 

NAME: Human Immunodeficiency Virus- this MSDS covers fully competent replicative 'wild type' HIV.  
RELEVANCE TO THE VIRACORE : The UCSF ViraCore mostly packages a 'stripped-down' version of this virus, such as pSico or LentiLox.  Such viruses contain less than 1/3 of the wild type HIV genome, thus crippling them from competent replication.
SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: HIV, AIDS, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, HTLV III LAV
CHARACTERISTICS: Retroviridae (Lentivirus); ss RNA, enveloped icosahedral nucleocapsid, glycoprotein envelope, reverse transcriptase

Health Hazard: 

PATHOGENICITY: Insidious onset with non-specific symptoms such as lymphadenopathy, anorexia, chronic diarrhea, weight loss, fever, and fatigue; opportunistic infections and malignant diseases without a known cause for immune deficiency
EPIDEMIOLOGY: First reported in 1981; cases recorded in Americas, Europe, Africa and many other areas; patient categories - homosexually or bisexually active men, drug abusers, Haitian/African emigrants, hemophiliacs, sexual partners of men and women in these categories, infants born to parents in this category
HOST RANGE: Humans
INFECTIOUS DOSE: Unknown
MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Transmitted from person to person through direct exposure to infected body fluids (blood, semen) sexual contact, sharing unclean needles etc.; transplacental transfer can occur
INCUBATlON PERIOD: Epidemiologic evidence suggests that duration from exposure to onset of symptoms has a minimum range from 6 months to more than 7 years
COMMUNICABILITY: Period of communicability extends from asymptomatic period through appearance of opportunistic diseases
RESERVOIR: Humans
ZOONOSIS: None
VECTORS: None

Viability: 

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: Several reverse transscriptase and protease inhibitors now licensed
SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to many disinfectants - 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde, ethanol
PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Effectiveness of 56 - 60 degrees C heat in destroying HIV in serum not certain, however, heating small volumes of serum for 30 min at 56 degrees C before serologic testing reduces residual infectivity to below detectable levels
SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Drying in environment causes rapid (within several hours) 90-99% reduction in HIV concentration

Medical: 

SURVEILLANCE: Serological monitoring for evidence of HIV infection
FIRST AID/TREATMENT: Specific measures for the opportunistic diseases that result from AIDS; "Cocktail" multidrug treatment for HIV
IMMUNIZATION: None available
PROPHYLAXIS: Experimental prophylaxis with AZT/DDI or other appropriate drug

Laboratory Hazards: 

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: 5 reported laboratory acquired infections with HIV (splashing of infected materials, inapparent skin exposure, puncture wounds); 18 reported cases in health care workers worldwide
SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Blood, semen, vaginal secretions, CSF, other specimens containing visible blood, unscreened or inadequately treated blood products
PRIMARY HAZARDS: Direct contact with skin and mucous membranes of the eye, nose and mouth; accidental parenteral inoculation; ingestion; hazard of aerosols exposure unknown
SPECIAL HAZARDS: Extreme care must be taken to avoid spilling and splashing infected materials - virus should be presumed in/on all equipment and devices coming in direct contact with infected materials

Handling Information: 

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wearing protective clothing, gently cover spill with paper towels and apply 1% sodium hypochlorite, starting at perimeter and working towards the centre; allow sufficient contact time (30 min) before clean up
DISPOSAL: Decontaminate before disposal - steam sterilization, incineration, chemical disinfection
STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled

Miscellaneous Information: 

Date prepared: Created in December 2010-  largely modified from protocols derived from the NIH, the Public Health Agency of Canada, and other related literature.
Prepared by: Michael McManus, PhD, UCSF
Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.