Adenovirus

Infectious Agent: 

NAME: Adenovirus types 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7
SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: ARD, acute respiratory disease, pharyngoconjunctival fever
CHARACTERISTICS: Adenoviridae; non-enveloped, icosahedral virions, 70-90 nm diameter, doubled-stranded, linear DNA genome.

Health Hazard: 

PATHOGENICITY: Varies in clinical manifestation and severity; symptoms include fever, rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, cough and conjunctivitis; common cause of nonstreptococcal exudative pharyngitis among children under 3 years; more severe diseases include laryngitis, croup, bronchiolitis, or severe pneumonia; a syndrome of pharyngitis and conjunctivitis (pharyngoconjunctival fever) is associated with adenovirus infection
EPIDEMIOLOGY: Worldwide; seasonal in temperate regions, with highest incidences in the fall, winter and early spring; in tropical areas, infections are common in the wet and colder weather; annual incidence is particularly high in children; adenovirus types 4 and 7 are common among military recruits (ARD)
HOST RANGE: Humans
INFECTIOUS DOSE: >150 plaque forming units when given intranasally
MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Directly by oral contact and droplet spread; indirectly by handkerchiefs, eating utensils and other articles freshly soiled with respiratory discharge of an infected person; outbreaks have been related to swimming pools; possible spread through the fecal-oral route
INCUBATION PERIOD: From 1-10 days
COMMUNICABILITY: Shortly prior to and for the duration of the active disease

Dissemination: 

RESERVOIR: Humans
ZOONOSIS: None
VECTORS: None

Viability: 

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: No specific antiviral available; cidofovir has shown promise in the treatment of adenoviral ocular infections.
SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% glutaraldehyde, 0.25% sodium dodecyl sulfate
PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Sensitive to heat>56°C; unusually stable to chemical or physical agents and adverse pH conditions
SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Resistance to chemical and physical agents allows for prolonged survival outside of the body. Adenovirus type 3 survived up to 10 days on paper under ambient conditions; adenovirus type 2 survived from 3-8 weeks on environmental surfaces at room temperature

Medical: 

SURVEILLANCE: Monitor for symptoms; confirm by serological analysis
FIRST AID/TREATMENT: Mainly supportive therapy
IMMUNIZATION: Vaccine available for adenovirus types 4 and 7 (used for military recruits)
PROPHYLAXIS: None available

Laboratory Hazards: 

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: Ten cases documented up to 1988
SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Respiratory secretions
PRIMARY HAZARDS: Ingestion; droplet exposure of the mucous membrane
SPECIAL HAZARDS: Contact with feces from infected animals

Handling Information: 

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wearing protective clothing gently cover the spill with absorbent paper towel and apply 1% sodium hypochlorite starting at the perimeter and working towards the centre; allow sufficient contact time (30 min) before clean up
DISPOSAL: Decontaminate all wastes before disposal; steam sterilization, incineration, chemical disinfection
STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled

Miscellaneous Information: 

Date prepared: Created in December 2010-  largely modified from protocols derived from the NIH, the Public Health Agency of Canada, and other related literature.
Prepared by: Michael McManus, PhD, UCSF
Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.